Following is the Glossary of Environmental Economics Terms. Click on
the relevant Alphabet to get a list of terms under :
The cost incurred when reducing a nuisance like pollution or congestion. The cost per unit of abatement usually increases as the level of nuisance approaches zero.
Atmospheric stocks of sulphur dioxide and nitrous oxide accumulate primarily from coal and heavy-oil-fired power generation. As a result, acid rain occurs through two principal processes. In a dry deposition, particulate matter is physically deposited, subsequently taking acidic form in conjunction with water surface. Wet depositions is characterized by acidic substances, particularly sulphuric and nitric acids being formed in atmosphere and subsequently being deposited through rain precipitation or movement of moist air.
In the context of North-South resource flows, the addition of new resources to those flows, as opposed to the repackaging of existing flows, which has now been re-labelled as ¿green¿. An example would be assistance for global environmental problems, which has been provided without reducing official aid for other purposes.
The global sustainable development agenda set out in the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, which was established at the earth Summit 1992. Agenda 21 consists of 40 chapters, and at its roots are 27 principles. There are four broad sections, which cover a range of issues: social and economic dimensions; conservation and management of resources for development; strengthening the role of major groups; and implementation. Agenda 21 highlights the importance of national strategies with international cooperation. It includes proposals for the integration of environment and development issues in decision-making and provisions for international institutional arrangements and legal mechanisms. Agenda 21 is an important document which has broad support among nations on all aspects of environment related to social and economic growth.
Avertive expenditures are expenditures undertaken to reduce the level of discomfort arising from externalities. For example, air and water pollution are known to result in a number of adverse health conditions. These costs can be seen as an expression of willingness to pay (WTP) to avoid resulting illness.