What is Climate ?
||Climate describes the total of all weather occurring over a period of years in a given place. This includes average weather conditions, regular weather sequences (like winter, spring, summer, and fall), and special weather events (like tornadoes and floods). Climate tells us what it's usually like in the place where you live.
What is Climate change?
Climate is the long-term average of a region's weather events
lumped together. Climate change represents a change in these
long-term weather patterns. They can become warmer or colder. Annual
amounts of rainfall or snowfall can increase or decrease.
What is Global Warming?
An increase in the Earth's temperature caused by human activities,
such as burning coal, oil and natural gas. This releases carbon
dioxide, methane, and other greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.
Greenhouse gases form a blanket around the Earth, trapping heat and
raising temperatures on the ground. This is steadily changing our
The Principle Greenhouse Gases
Carbon dioxide (CO2)
Carbon dioxide is a product of combustion and respiration
(breathing). It is a colourless gas, quite innocuous at ordinary
levels. Higher level of Carbon dioxide is the most most significant
of the greenhouse gases contributing to global warming. Carbon
dioxide concentrations have increased from about 280ppmv in the last
18th century to 385ppmv in 1994- an increase of almost 30%. The
increase is primary due to combustion of fossil fuel in steam
generators and industrial furnaces, in cement production, and in
changes in tropical land use.
Methane is another important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere.
The increase of methane in the atmosphere is closely linked to the
world's growing population and its growing demand for food, for
example, in the increasing numbers of cattle and sheep and
increasing hectares of rice paddies. An average cow is emitting 280
liters of methane each day. Methane is also emitted during the
process of oil drilling, coal mining and also from leaking gas
pipelines. Atmosphere methane has been increasing at the rate of
about 1% each year. The atmospheric concentration of methane has
increased from about 700ppbv in pre-industrial time to 1721ppbv in
Nitrous Oxide (N2O)
Nitrous oxide is another of the gases contributing to the
greenhouse effect. Sources are fossil-fuel combustion, biomass
burning, and the use of fertilizer.
When Do You Send Greenhouse Gases into
Watch TV Play a Video Game
Use the Air Conditioner Turn on a Light
Use a Hair Dryer Ride in a Car
Listen to a Stereo Wash or Dry Clothes
Use a Dish Washer Microwave a Meal
To perform many of these functions, you need to use electricity.
Electricity comes from power plants. Most power plants use coal and
oil to make electricity. Burning coal and oil produces greenhouse
Why should we care about Climate Change?
The following would be the probable scenario by the end of the 21st
· Temperature will have increased by 1-3.5 ° C depending on
population and economic growth.
· Sea level will be 15-90 cm higher, threatening about 92 million
people with floods.
· Rainfall would have decreased and there would be a reduction of
Causes of Climate Change
The causes of climate change can be divided into two categories.
They are as follows.
1. Natural causes
- Continental drift- this drift also had an impact on the
climate because it changed the physical features of the
landmass, their position and the position of water bodies.
- Volcanoes- when a volcano erupts it throws out large volumes
of sulphur dioxide (SO2), water vapour, dust, and ash into the
- Ocean currents - Much of the heat that escapes from the oceans
is in the form of water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas
2. Human causes
- The large-scale use of fossil fuels for industrial activities.
- People moved from rural areas to the cities.
- Natural resources are being used extensively for construction,
industries, transport, and consumption.
- Our population has increased to an incredible extent.
- Huge usage of fossil fuels such as oil, coal and natural gas
to run vehicles, generate electricity for industries,
Impacts of climate change
Climate change will affect agricultural yield directly because
of alterations in temperature and rainfall, and indirectly through
changes in soil quality, pests, and diseases.
A warmer climate will change rainfall and snowfall patterns,
lead to increased droughts and floods. Rising warmth will lead to an
increase in the level of evaporation of surface water; the air will
also expand and this will increase its capacity to hold moisture.
This, in turn, will affect water resources, forests, and other
natural ecological systems, agriculture, power generation,
infrastructure, tourism, and human health.
Sea level rise
The heating of oceans, and melting of glaciers and polar ice
sheets, is predicted to raise the average sea level by about half a
metre over the next century. Sea-level rise could have a number of
physical impacts on coastal areas.
Forests and wildlife
Ecosystems sustain the earth's entire storehouse of species and
genetic diversity. Plants and animals in the natural environment are
very sensitive to changes in climate. Mountain parks have been
identified as being especially at risk from the environmental
destruction caused by climate change. Climate change will affect the
flight pattern and shift the feeding points of migratory birds.
- Changes in weather pattern, can lead to ecological
disturbances, changes in food production levels, increase in the
distribution of malaria, and other vector-borne diseases.
- Fluctuation in the climate especially in the temperature,
precipitation, and humidity can influence biological organisms
and the processes linked to the spread of infectious diseases.
- Higher temperature will cause the sea levels to rise that
could lead to erosion and damage to important ecosystems such as
wetlands and coral reefs. Direct impact of this rise would
include deaths and injury caused by intense flooding.
- Temperature rise would indirectly result in geohydrological
changes along the coastline such as saltwater intrusion into the
groundwater and the wetlands, coral reef destruction, and damage
to the drainage in the low-lying areas.
- Climate change could increase air pollution levels by
accelerating the atmospheric chemical reactions that produce
photochemical oxidants due to a rise in the temperature.
Solutions to cut down the Climate change
- Learning about the environment is very important. There are
many good books that will help you learn.
- Talk with your family and friends about global warming. Let
them know what you've learned
- Planting trees is fun and a great way to reduce greenhouse
gases. Trees absorb carbon dioxide, a greenhouse gas, from the
- Buy more efficient household appliances.
- Replace all incandescent bulbs by compact fluorescent bulbs
that last four times longer and use just one-fourth of the
- Use sodium vapour lights for street lighting; these are more
- Keep car engines well tuned and use more fuel-efficient
- Form car pools and encourage parents and friends to do the
- Cycle or walk to the neighbourhood market.
- You can save energy by sometimes taking the bus, riding a
bike, or walking
- Recycle cans, bottles, plastic bags, and newspapers. When you
recycle, you send less trash to the landfill and you help save
natural resources, like trees, oil, and elements such as
- One of the ways to reduce the amount of greenhouse gases that
we put into the air is to buy products that don't use as much
energy. By conserving energy- products like certain cars and
stereos - are made specially to save energy.
- Cars also cause pollution and release a lot of greenhouse
gases into the air. Using gasoline cars can help reduce the
amount of greenhouse gases in the air.
- Buying products (computers, TVs, stereos, and VCRs ) with
ENERGY STAR® labels will help protect the environment.