Environmental Impact Assessment -Role of different actors in EIA Process

Role of different actors in EIA Process 
EIA involves many parties, grouped by their role definition within the process. This section outlines the basic responsibilities of various bodies. 

  1. Project Proponent 
    The project proponent during the project planning stage decides the type of projects i.e. new establishment, expansion or modernization. Later the project proponent needs to prepare the detailed project report/feasibility report and submit the executive summary, which shall incorporate the project details, and findings of EIA study, which is to be made available to concerned public. The proponent has to approach the concerned SPCB for No Objection Certificate (NOC) and holding the public hearing. After the public hearing the proponent submits application to IAA for environmental clearance.
  2. Environment Consultant 
    Environmental consultant should be conversant with the existing legal and procedural requirements of obtaining environmental clearance for proposed project. The consultant should guide the proponent through initial screening of the project and establish whether EIA studies are required to be conducted and if so finalise the scope of such study. The consultant should also be fully equipped with required instruments and infrastructure for conducting EIA studies. The environmental consultant is responsible for supplying all the environment-related information required by the SPCB and IAA through the proponent. The consultant is also required to justify the findings in the EIA and EMP during the meeting with the expert groups at IAA.
  3. State Pollution Control Board (PCB) /Pollution Control Committee (PCC) 
    The State PCBs/PCCs are responsible for assessing the compatibility of a proposed development with current operational and prescribed standards. If the development is in compliance, the PCB will then issue its NOC. They shall also hold the public hearing as per the provisions of EIA notification. The details of public hearing shall be forwarded to IAA.
  4. Public Law 
    It requires that the public must be informed and consulted on a proposed development after the completion of EIA report. Any one likely to be affected by the proposed project is entitled to have access to the Executive Summary of the EIA. The affected persons may include: a) bonafide local residents; b) local associations; c) environmental groups: active in the area; d) any other person located at the project site / sites of displacement. They are to be given an opportunity to make oral/written suggestions to the State Pollution Control Board as per Schedule IV of Annex I.
  5. Impact Assessment Agency (IAA) 
    Where a proponent is required to obtain environmental clearance, the IAA will evaluate and assess the EIA report. In this process the project proponent will be given a chance to present his proposal. If a project is accepted the IAA will also prepare a set of recommendations and conditions for its implementation based on this assessment. Environmental clearance conditions and recommendations of IAA are made available to the public on request through SPCB and through web site at http://envfor.nic.in. During the implementation and operation of the project, the IAA will also be responsible for the environmental monitoring process.

Summary of the responsibilities of different agencies during EIA Process

Project proponent


Environment Consultant



Administrative Body (Govt., CPCB. SPCB, BIS, MOEF)


Decides the type of project and also about requirement of Environmental Clearance


Guides the proponent in the initial screening stage.

Determines if the initial project description submitted is adequate.



Provide TOR

Guidance is provided to the proponent, if needed

Establish if an EIA study is required and if so, finalize the scope of the study.


EIA Report

Prepares detailed project report and provide information in logical and transparent manner

Examines if procedures have been followed as per MoEF notifications, assesses the report.


Has to go through the EIA Report very carefully.

After the completion of EIA report, the law requires that the public must be informed and consulted.


Baseline Conditions

/Adhere to the attributes, recommended by the BIS, CPCB, and MoEF.


Should be conversant with the existing legal and procedural requirements for the project.


Responsible for assessing the compatibility of the proposed development with prescribed standards.

Public Hearing

Approach the SPCB for holding the public hearing. Obliged to respond to issues raised during the hearing

SPCB forward the details of Public hearing to IAA.


SPCB's hold the public hearing as per the provisions of EIA Notification and forward the details to IAA.

Decision Making


IAA assists administrative authority in the decision making process

Justify the findings in the EIA during meetings with the expert group.


Makes decision along with IAA

Monitoring clearance conditions

Should be done in the construction and operation phase.

Plays a role in the monitoring process by examining reports and taking further action


Should monitor the implementation of conditions



http://coe.mse.ac.in 2003-09. Madras School of Economics - Systems Department