Environmental Impact Assessment - Projects subject to EIA

Projects subject to EIA
The projects can be classified into three categories based on whether EIA is required or not and who is responsible for the clearance. 
Category 1 :
Projects where EIA is mandatory and requires clearance from Central government As of now, EIA clearance is required for 30 categories of industries from the central government which can be broadly categorized under sectors of industries, mining, thermal power plants, river valley, ports, harbours and airports, communication, atomic energy, transport (rail, road, highway), tourism (including hotels, beach resorts)

Category 2 :  
Projects where EIA is mandatory and requires clearance from State Governments (full EIA may not be required) The Central Government has notified (dated 10 April 1997, No. S. O.319. E) that certain category of thermal power plants namely all capacity cogeneration plants, captive coal and gas/naphtha based power plants up to 250 MW, coal based power plants up to 250 MW using conventional technologies, coal based plants up to 500 MW using fluidized bed technology and gas/naphtha based plants up to 500 MW require environmental clearance from the state government. In case of pithead thermal power plants, the applicant shall intimate the location of the project site to the state government while initiating any investigation and surveys. Proposals where forestland is a part of the project site need prior forestry clearance before forwarding to MoEF for environmental clearance. In the environmental clearance process, the documents to be submitted to MoEF are project report, public hearing report, site clearance for site specific projects, no objection certificate from State Pollution Control Board (SPCB), environmental appraisal questionnaire, EIA/EMP report, risk analysis for projects involving hazardous substance and rehabilitation plans, if more than 1000 people are likely to be displaced. 

Category 3 :
For these projects EIA is not necessary: Some of the projects that come under this category include defense related road construction projects in border areas, production of production of bulk drugs based on genetically engineered organisms: Construction activities related to the projects of Department of Atomic Energy (b) laying of pipelines, conveying systems including transmission lines; (c) facilities that are essential for activities permissible under CRZ-I; Exploration and extraction of oil and natural gas is also permitted between Low Tide Line (LTL) and High Tide Line (HTL) in areas, which are not ecologically sensitive, pipeline projects; Facilities for receipt and storage of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) and facilities for its re-gasification.



Category 1 - List of Projects requiring Environmental Clearance from Central Government


Type of Project

Specific Exemptions / Characteristics (if any)
1 Nuclear Power and related projects e.g. Heavy Water Plants, nuclear fuel complex, Rare Earths. None
2 River Valley Projects (Ex: Hydel Power, major Irrigation and their combination including flood control) None
3 Ports, Harbors, Airports Except minor Ports and Harbors
4 Petroleum Refineries including crude and product pipelines  None
5 Chemical fertilizers, nitrogenous and phosphatic other than single super phosphate  None 
6 Pesticides (Technical) None
7 Petrochemical Complexes (both olefinic and aromatic) and petrochemical intermediates such as DMT, caprolactam, LAB etc. and production of basic plastics such as LLDPE, HDPE, PP and PVC None 
8 Bulk drugs and pharmaceuticals None
9 Exploration for oil and gas and their production, transportation and storage. None
10 Synthetic Rubber None
11 Asbestos and Asbestos products. None
12 Hydrocyanic acid and its derivatives. None
13 (a) Primary metallurgical industries (such as production of Iron and Steel, Aluminum, Copper, Zinc, Lead and Ferro Alloys).  

(b) Electric arc furnaces (Mini Steel Plants).
14 Chloro alkali industry.  None
15 Integrated paint complex including manufacture of resins and basic raw materials required in the manufacture of paints. None
16 Viscose Staple fiber and filament yarn None
17 Storage batteries integrated with manufacture of oxides of lead and lead antimony alloys. None
18 All tourism projects Between 200m-500 meters of High Water Line and at locations with an elevation of more than 1000 meters with investment of more than Rs.5 crores.
19 Thermal Power Plants. None
20 Mining projects Only major minerals with leases more than 5 hectares.
21 Highway Projects ** Except projects relating to improvement work including widening and strengthening of roads with marginal land acquisition along the existing alignments provided it does not pass through ecologically sensitive areas such as National Parks, Sanctuaries, Tiger Reserves, Reserve Forests **
22 Tarred Roads in the Himalayas and or Forest areas. None
23 Distilleries. None
24 Raw Skins and Hides None
25 Pulp, paper and newsprint None
26 Dyes. None
27 Cement. None
28 Foundries Individual
29 Electroplating None 
30 Meta amino phenol None 


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